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Public Theology: Theologians Under Hitler
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Theologians Under Hitler
Notes for an article

Discuss the book by Robert P. Ericksen, author of "Theologians Under Hitler (1985 Yale University Press). The book explores the paradox of three great theologians- whose work still stands today- who supported Hitler during the Nazi era.

A proposed documentary film "will examine difficult questions about the Church's ability to recognize evil, both yesterday and today, and will contrast these issues with Christian figures, such as Bonhoeffer and Niemoller, who did indeed stand against evil."

"The figure of Adolf Hitler stands alone in modern history as a symbol of evil. In hindsight, the evils of Nazi Germany are obvious. But what led many good, intelligent people to follow National Socialism and serve as its apologists? And how could three of Germany's greatest Protestant theologians: Paul Althaus, Gerhard Kittel, and Emanuel Hirsch, support Hitler?"

Book Review:



Copyright (c) 1996 First Things 67 (November 1996): 2-7.

Debating the Shoah In his review essay on Hitler's Willing Executioners ("Daniel Goldhagen's Holocaust," August/September), Richard John Neuhaus harshly challenges Professor Goldhagen's criticism of the role played by the Christian churches under the Nazi regime, suggesting, rather, that the churches found themselves in a position where they failed, for the most part, "to muster courage to be martyrs" under a "ruthless and totalitarian regime." Father Neuhaus, however, neglects to acknowledge the enthusiasm with which so many Christians, outside the pro-Hitler German Christian movement but within the Evangelical Church, greeted the rise of National Socialism.

For some, it was as much because of the Fuehrer's policy vis-a-vis Jews and Judaism as it was his promise of being a force against communism and the perceived decadence of the Weimar Republic. Indeed, the Protestant Church's most respected segment, its renowned university theological faculty, time and again embraced and promulgated Hitler's beliefs about Jews. As Robert Ericksen has noted in his book, Theologians Under Hitler, not only were the brightest lights of German Protestant scholarship, Gerhard Kittel, Paul Althaus, and Emanuel Hirsch, "monstrously anti-Semitic, but they were products of Christian mainstream theology." These were scholars of exemplary credentials, yet their positions regarding the Jewish people and their faith were right in line with that of Hitler's German Christian movement.

It wasn't some aberrant or fringe movement that began the Institute for the Study and Eradication of Jewish Influence on German Church Life. It was University Professor Walter Grundmann and his colleagues, with funds from the Evangelical Church headquarters. Its goal was to eliminate once and for all everything Jewish in Christianity. Even before its first publication was off the press, tens of thousands of Christians in Germany became subscribers.

Would it have meant martyrdom for Emanuel Hirsch if he had not published his well-received and, in his words, "more acceptable" New Testament with its relentless anti-Jewish bias? Would it have meant martyrdom for Bishop Heinrich Oberheid had he not been a major mover behind the notorious 1939 Godesberg Declaration of the National Church Union of German Christians that called for full expurgation of Jewry from the Church? Would it have been martyrdom for a seminary such as Erlangen had it resisted the Aryan clause, a law that effectively banned clergy of Jewish ancestry from church pulpits? I think not. . . .

Contrary to what Fr. Neuhaus charges, Goldhagen never says Martin Luther was responsible for the Holocaust. He states, in his scant references to Luther, that church leaders exploited Luther's anti-Semitic vitriol. Neuhaus himself concedes that Luther's views were exploited by the Nazis. Small wonder, given that Luther had referred to Jews as "our plague, our pestilence, our misfortune." . . . But then Fr. Neuhaus proceeds to posit that Luther was not, after all, a "passionate anti- Semitic hero." What more does it take to be described as such when one has written, with respect to the Jews, "We are at fault in not slaying them." . . .

Some historians of the period have equated Christian support for Jews who had converted to Christianity with opposition to the anti-Semitic politics of Nazism. But it is important to recognize that with a few exceptions (Dietrich Bonhoeffer, for example), Protestants uttered barely a word of protest against what was happening to their fellow citizens who were Jewish. The Roman Catholics, with their own few notable exceptions, did no better. . . .

Of course Fr. Neuhaus is correct that John Chrysostom and Martin Luther cannot be held responsible for the deaths of Jews in Germany, and that the former was obviously not "writing speeches for Josef Goebbels." Yet writings have many lives. . . . The frequent statements by prominent German Christian theologians resurrecting age-old Christian anti-Jewish canards did indeed have a very powerful effect on the thinking of men and women in a land considered by many to be the "heart of Christendom." As James Parkes wrote in the 1930s, accusations against Jews by Christians of ritual murder, poisoning of the wells, and a host of other time-honored charges are "natural outgrowths from the picture created by Chrysostom or a Cyril."

That is why we remember with gratitude the leadership of Pope John XXIII as he turned the Christian understanding of Jews and Judaism around 180 degrees with the initiation of a process leading to the promulgation of Nostra Aetate. It is why we give thanks for Protestant denominations such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the National Alliance of Baptists as each has reformulated, within the last several years, its understanding of its relationship with Judaism. And it is why we give thanks for the pres-ent pope, John Paul II, as he labors to build bridges across what many have thought, down through the years, was an impassable divide.

Fr. Neuhaus, like most critics of this book, has demonstrated the weakness of Goldhagen's premise that "what can be said about the Germans cannot be said about any other nationality." And it is correct that in his treatment of the churches in Germany as a whole, Goldhagen has taken the facts out of their historical context.

But is equally true that attempting to explain away or in any way ignore the churches' response cannot erase the reality that the documents, statements, and actions Goldhagen cites are a stain on their history. They are ones which we as Christians should not ever attempt to excuse. As Father Edward Flannery has written, it is the "ultimate scandal that in carrying the burden of God in history the Jewish people did not find in the Christian churches an ally and defender but one of their most zealous detractors and oppressors."

Peggy Obrecht Director of Church Relations U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum Washington, D.C.

RJN replies:

I emphatically agree that we must not "attempt to excuse" the generally lamentable response of Christians in Germany, Protestant and Catholic, to Hitler's anti-Semitism, and my essay made that clear beyond doubt. Ms. Obrecht, however, greatly understates the "weakness" of Goldhagen's book. It is, as I said, "an incoherent, hate-filled, dishonest tract" that smears all Germans, including heroes such as Dietrich Bonhoeffer, with the charge of anti-Semitism, which he says is "axiomatic" in being German. She is right that the choice was not between martyrdom and being an enthusiastic proponent of Hitler's policies, but, as a careful reading of Robert Ericksen's book demonstrates, she greatly overstates the degree to which figures such as Emanuel Hirsch represented the mainstream Protestant position. While no doubt many people shared their views, Ericksen studies Althaus, Kittel, and, most particularly, Hirsch precisely because they were not representative.

As I noted, Luther said abhorrently vicious things about Jews, but we grant Hitler a "posthumous victory" (Emil Fackenheim) if we agree with the Nazis that Luther, and Christianity more generally, support their anti-Semitism. Of great importance, among other things, is that Luther's attacks were based on religion and not on race. That does not make his words more defensible, but it underscores the gross misrepresentation of Luther by the Hitler regime. On this score, I again recommend Uwe Siemon-Netto's recent book, The Fabricated Luther. This touches on the question of who is responsible for the illegitimate exploitation of what others have said. My answer is that those who misrepresent others are responsible for that misrepresentation. It is true that "writings have many lives," but John Chrysostom in fourth-century Constantinople should not be held responsible for the misrepresentation of his writings by Nazis in twentieth-century Germany. Those who argue otherwise, including Daniel Goldhagen, are guilty of making a muddle of moral accountability, thus obscuring good and evil alike. The Holocaust is so important as to require the clearest and most careful moral reasoning, and I am not sure that Ms. Obrecht or the Holocaust Museum contributes to that end by offering a defense, however qualified, of Mr. Goldhagen's scurrilous polemic.


From ELCA website: Books on the Reformation and the Tradition as a Whole:

Allen, J. W. History of Political Thought in the Sixteenth Century, 15-34. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1928. On Luther and Melanchthon.

Althaus, Paul. The Ethics of Martin Luther. Trans. from the German and with a Forward by Robert C. Schultz. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1972.

Arand, Charles P. “Luther on God Behind the First Commandment.” Lutheran Quarterly VIII, 4 (Winter 1994): 397-424.

Atkinson, James. “Lutheranism.” In Dictionary of Ethics, Theology and Society, eds. Paul Barry Clarke and Andrew Linzey, 536-41. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Avis, P. D. L. “Moses and the Magistrate: A Study in the Rise of Protestant Legalism.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History XXVI, 2 (April 1975): 149-72.

Bainton, Roland Herbert. “The Development and Consistency of Luther’s Attitude to Religious Liberty.” Harvard Theological Review XXII, 2 (April 1929): 107-50.

Bayer, Oswald. “Luther’s Ethics as Pastoral Care.” Lutheran Quarterly IV, 2 (Summer 1990): 125-42.

Baylor, Michael J. Action and Person: Conscience in Late Scholasticism and the Young Luther. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1977.

Benne, Robert. “Luther, Martin (1483-1546).” In Encyclopedia of Ethics, eds. Lawrence A. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, 755-6. New York: Garland, 1992.

Bergendoff, Conrad. “Christian Love and Public Policy in Luther.” Lutheran Quarterly XIII, 3 (August 1961): 218-28.

Berman, Harold. “Conscience and Law: The Lutheran Reformation and the Western Legal Tradition.” Journal of Law and Religion 5:1 (1987): 177-202.

_______, and John Witte, Jr. “The Transformation of Western Legal Philosophy in Lutheran Germany.” Southern California Law Review 62, 6 (September 1989): 1575-659.

Bertram, Robert. “The Radical Dialectic Between Faith and Works in Luther’s Lectures on Galatians (1535).” In Luther for an Ecumenical Age: Essays in Commemoration of the 450th Anniversary of the Reformation, ed. Carl S. Meyer, 219-41. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1967.

Bielfeldt, Dennis. “Freedom, Love, and Righteousness in Luther’s Sermo de Duplici Iustitia.” In Freedom as Love in Martin Luther, eds. Bielfeldt and Klaus Schwarzwaller, 19-34. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.

Bornkamm, Heinrich. Luther in Mid-Career, 1521-1530. Ed. and with a Foreword by Karin Bornkamm. Trans. from the German by E. Theodore Bachmann. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983.

_______. Luther’s World of Thought. Trans. from the German by Martin H. Bertram. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1958.

_______. Luther's Doctrine of the Two Kingdoms in the Context of His Theology. Trans. from the German by Karl H. Hertz. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1966.

Brady, Thomas A., Jr. “Luther’s Social Teaching and the Social Order of His Age.” In The Martin Luther Quincentennial, ed. Gerhard Dunnhaupt, 270-90. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1985.

Brecht, Martin. “Divine Right and Human Rights in Luther.” In Martin Luther and the Modern Mind: Freedom, Conscience, Toleration, Rights, ed. Manfred Hoffmann, 61-84. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen, 1985.

_______. Martin Luther. I. His Road to Reformation, 1483-1521. II. Shaping and Defining the Reformation, 1521-1532. III. The Preservation of the Church, 1532-1546. Trans. from the German by James L. Schaaf. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1985-1993.

_______. “Luther, Martin.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, 2, ed. Hans J. Hillerbrand, 461-67. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Bibliography.

Cargill Thompson, W.D.J. The Political Thought of Martin Luther, ed. Philip Broadhead. Totowa, N. J.: Barnes & Noble, 1984. Bibliography.

_______. Studies in the Reformation: Luther to Hooker. C. W. Dugmore, 3-59. London: The Athlone Press, 1980. “Luther and the Right of Resistance to the Emperor” and “The ‘Two Kingdoms’ and the ‘Two Regiments’: Some Problems of Luther’s Zwei-Reiche-Lehre.”

Carlson, Edgar. “Luther’s Conception of Government.” Church History XV, 4 (December 1946): 257-70.

_______. The Reinterpretation of Luther. Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1958.

Cranz, F. Edward. An Essay on the Development of Luther’s Thought on Justice, Law, and Society. Eds. Gerald Christianson and Thomas M. Izbicki with a new Introduction by Scott Hendrix. Mifflintown, Pa.: Sigler Press, 1997. Originally published in 1959.

Douglass, Jane Dempsey. “The Image of God in Women as Seen by Luther and Calvin.” In The Image of God: Gender Models in Judaeo-Christian Tradition, ed. Kari Elisabeth Borresen, 236-66. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995.

Dowey, Edward A. “Law in Luther and Calvin.” Theology Today XLI, 2 (July 1984): 146-53.

Ebeling, Gerhard. Luther: An Introduction to His Thought, 110-209. Trans. from the German by R A. Wilson. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1972.

Edwards, Mark U. “The Reception of Luther’s Understanding of Freedom in the Early Modern Period.” Lutherjahrbuch, 1995, ed. Helmar Junghaus, 104-20.

Erling, Bernhard. “The Role of Law in How a Christian Becomes What He/She Is.” In Freedom as Love in Martin Luther, eds. Dennis D. Bielfeldt and Klaus Schwarzwaller, 63-77. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.

Figgis, John Neville. “Luther and Machiavelli.” In Studies of Political Thought from Gerson to Grotius, 1414-1625, 55-93. Lecture delivered in 1900. Cambridge: University Press, 1956.

Fischer, Robert H. “The Reasonable Luther.” In Reformation Studies: Essays in Honor of Roland H. Bainton, ed. Franklin Littell, 30-45. Richmond, Va.: John Knox Press, 1962.

Forell, George W. The Augsburg Confession: A Contemporary Commentary. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1968. For general audience.

_______. Faith Active in Love: An Investigation of the Principles Underlying Luther’s Social Ethics. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1954. Critique of dualistic interpretations of Luther.

_______. “Freedom as Love: Luther’s Treatise on Good Works.” In Freedom as Love in Martin Luther, eds. Dennis D. Bielfeldt and Klaus Schwarzwaller, 79-84. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.

_______. History of Christian Ethics, 1: From the New Testament to Augustine. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1979.

_______. “Luther’s Conception of Natural Orders.” Lutheran Church Quarterly XLIII, 2 (July 1945): 160-77.

_______, and James F. McCue. "Political Order and Vocation in the Augsburg Confession." In Confessing One Faith, ed. Forell and McCue, 322-333. Minneapolis: Augsburg Press, 1982. By a Lutheran and a Roman Catholic.

Gerrish, B. A. Grace and Reason: A Study in the Theology of Luther. 1962. Reprint. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

_______. “Martin Luther.” In The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, V, ed. Paul Edwards, 109-13. New York: Macmillan, 1967.

Grislis, Egil. “The Foundation of Creative Freedom in Martin Luther’s ‘Von den Guten Werken’ (1520).” In Freedom as Love in Martin Luther, eds. Dennis D. Bielfeldt and Klaus Schwarzwaller, 85-103. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.

_______. “The Meaning of Good Works: Luther and the Anabaptists.” Word & World III, 2 (Spring 1986): 170-80.

Gritsch, Eric W. Fortress Introduction to Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1994.

_______. “Martin Luther’s Commentary on Gal 5,2-24, 1519 (WA 2, 574-597) and Sermon on Gal 4, 1-7, 1522 (WA 10 I 1, 325-378).” In Freedom as Love in Martin Luther, eds. Dennis D. Bielfeldt and Klaus Schwarzwaller, 105-11. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.

Gualtieri, Antonio R. “Soteriology and Ethics in Martin Luther.” In Encounters with Luther: Papers from the McGill Luther Symposium, 1983, ed. Edward J. Furcha, 67-84. Montreal, 1984.

Gustafson, James M. Christ and the Moral Life, 116-149. New York: Harper & Row, 1968. Discusses Luther under “Jesus Christ, the Justifier.”

Hall, Thomas Cuming. History of Ethics within Organized Christianity, 468-504. New York: Scribner, 1910. On Luther and Melanchthon.

Harran, Marilyn J. “Luther and Freedom of Thought.” In Martin Luther and the Modern Mind: Freedom, Conscience, Toleration, Rights, ed. Manfred Hoffmann, 191-236. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen, 1985.

Headley, John M. “Luther and the Problem of Secularization.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion LV, 1 (Spring 1987): 21-37.

Hendrix, Scott. “Christianizing Domestic Relations: Women and Marriage in Johann Freder’s Dialogus dem Ehestand zu Ehren (1545).” Sixteenth Century Journal 23, 2 (1992): 251-66.

_______. “Masculinity and Patriarchy in Reformation Germany.” Journal of the History of Ideas 56, 2 (1995): 177-93.

Heinecken, Martin J. “Luther and the ‘Orders of Creation’ in Relation to a Doctrine of Work and Vocation.” Lutheran Quarterly IV, 4 (November 1952): 393-414.

Hinlicky, Paul R. “Luther Against the Contempt of Women.” Lutheran Quarterly II, 4 (Winter 1988): 515-30.

Hoffman, Bengt R. “Lutheran Spirituality.” In Spiritual Traditions for the Contemporary Church, eds. Robin Maas and Gabriel O’Donnell, 145-61. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1990.

_______. “On the Relationship Between Mystical Faith and Moral Life in Luther’s Thought.” In Encounter with Luther, 1, ed. Eric W. Gritsch, 236-58. Gettysburg, Pa.: Institute for Luther Studies, 1980.

Hoffman, Manfred. “Reformation and Toleration.” In Martin Luther and the Modern Mind: Freedom, Conscience, Toleration, Rights, ed. Hoffmann, 85-124. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen, 1985.

Holl, Karl. The Cultural Significance of the Reformation. Trans. by Karl and Barbara Hertz and John H. Lichtblau. New York: Meridian Books, 1959.

_______. The Reconstruction of Morality, eds. James Luther Adams & Walter F. Bense. Trans. from the German by Fred W. Meuser and Walter R. Wietzke. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1979.

Hopfl, Harro. “Luther, Martin.” In The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought, eds. David Miller, Janet Coleman, William Connolly, and Alan Ryan, 297-9. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1987.

Huegli, Albert G., ed. Church and State Under God. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1964. Includes Lewis W. Spitz on the Reformation, H. Richard Klann and William H. Lehmann on developments since the Reformation, and Martin E. Marty on contemporary alternative approaches.

Hütter, Reinhard. “Martin Luther and Johannes Dietenberger on ‘Good Works’.” Lutheran Quarterly VI, 2 (Summer 1992): 127-152.

Jacobsen, H. K. “Lutheran Ethics.” In New Dictionary of Christian Ethics & Pastoral Theology, eds. David J. Atkinson and David H. Field, 560-1. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1995.

Jenson, Robert W. “An Ontology of Freedom in the ‘De Servo Arbitrio’ of Luther.” In Freedom as Love in Martin Luther, eds. Dennis D. Bielfeldt and Klaus Schwarzwaller, 113-18. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.

Keen, Ralph. Divine and Human Authority in Reformation Thought: German Theologians on Political Order, 1520-1555. Nieuwkoop: B. De Graaf, 1997.

_______. “The Moral World of Philip Melanchthon.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1990.

_______. “Political Authority and Ecclesiology in Melanchthon’s ‘De Ecclesiae Autoritate’.” Church History 65, 1 (March 1996): 1-14.

Kinder, Ernst. “Agape in Luther.” In The Philosophy and Theology of Anders Nygren, ed. Charles W. Kegley, 203-19. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois University Press, 1970.

Klann, Richard. “Lutheran Ethics.” In Baker’s Dictionary of Christian Ethics, ed. Carl F. H. Henry, 399-400. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1973.

_______. “Luther’s Political Ethics: An Investigation of His Principles.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1951.

Kolb, Robert. Nikolaus von Amsdorf (1483-1565): Popular Polemics in the Preservation of Luther’s Legacy, 123-80. Nieuwkoop: B. De Graaf, 1978. Controversy on the meaning of good works.

_______. “Niebuhr’s ‘Christ and Culture in Paradox’ Revisited.” Lutheran Quarterly X, 3 (Autumn 1996): 259-80.

Kolden, Marc. “Luther on Vocation.” Word & World III, 4 (Fall 1983): 382-91.

Kvam, Kristen E. “Luther, Eve, and Theological Anthropology: Reassessing the Reformer’s Response to the Frauenfrage.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Emory University, 1992. Bibliography.

Lage, Dietmar. Martin Luther’s Christology and Ethics. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990.

Lazareth, William H. Luther on the Christian Home: An Application of the Social Ethics of the Reformation. Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1960.

Letts, Harold C, ed. The Lutheran Heritage. Vol. Two. Christian Social Responsibility. Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1957. Jerald C. Brauer writes on the Reformation; Theodore G. Tappert on orthodoxism, pietism and rationalism; E. Theodore Bachmann on the rise of modern society; and Howard Hong on liberalism.

Lienhard, Marc. “Luther and Beginnings of the Reformation.” In Christian Spirituality: High Middle Ages and Reformation, ed. Jill Raitt in collaboration with Bernard McGinn and John Meyendorff, 268-99. New York: Crossroad, 1987.

Lindbeck, George. “Luther on Law in an Ecumenical Context.” Dialog 22, 4 (Fall 1983): 270-4.

_______. “Martin Luther and the Rabbinic Mind.” In Understanding the Rabbinic Mind: Essays on the Hermeneutic of Max Kadushin, ed. Peter Ochs, 141-64. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990.

Lindberg, Carter. Beyond Charity: Reformation Initiatives for the Poor. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. Bibliography.

_______. “Justice and Injustice in Luther’s Judgment of ‘Holiness Movements’.” In Luther’s Ecumenical Significance, eds. Peter Manns and Harding Meyer, 161-82. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984. On Luther’s simul.

_______. “Martin Luther: Copernican Revolution or Ecumenical Bridge.” Una Sancta 24, 1 (1967): 31-8. On agape in Luther.

_______. “The Ministry and Vocation of the Baptized.” Lutheran Quarterly VI, 4 (Winter 1992): 385-402.

_______. “Reformation Initiatives for Social Welfare: Luther’s Influence at Leisnig.” In The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics 1987, ed. D. M. Yeager, 79-99. Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Press, 1987.

_______. “Theology and Politics: Luther the Radical and Munster the Reactionary.” Encounter 37, 4 (Autumn 1976): 356-71.

Loewenich, Walter von. Luther’s Theology of the Cross. Trans. from the German by Herbert J. A. Bouman. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1976.

Lohse, Bernhard. “Conscience and Authority in Luther.” In Luther and the Dawn of the Modern Era, ed. H. A. Oberman, 158-83. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1974.

______. Martin Luther: An Introduction to His Life and Work. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980. An overview of issues in Luther research, including the two kingdoms (186- 92). Bibliography.

Lotz, David W. “Sola Scriptura: Luther on Biblical Authority.” Interpretation XXXV, 3 (July 1981): 258-73.

Lund, N. J. “Lutheran Ethics.” In Encyclopedia of Biblical and Christian Ethics, rev. ed., ed. R. K. Harrison, 241-2. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1992.

Ludolphy, Ingetraut. “Luther’s Attitude Toward Women.” In Encounters with Luther: Papers from the McGill Luther Symposium, 1983, ed. Edward J. Furcha, 67-84. Montreal, 1984.

MacIntyre, Alasdair. A Short History of Ethics: A History of Moral Philosophy from the Homeric Age to the Twentieth Century, 121-7. New York: Macmillian, 1966. On Luther.

Mannermaa, Tuomo. “Theosis as a Subject of Finnish Luther Research.” Pro Ecclesia IV, 4 (Winter 1994): 37-48.

Maurer, Wilhelm. Historical Commentary on the Augsburg Confession. Trans. from the German by H. George Anderson. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986.

McNeill, John T. “Natural Law in the Teaching of the Reformers.” Journal of Religion XXVI, 3 (July 1946): 168-82.

_______. “Natural Law in the Thought of Luther.” Church History X, 3 (1941): 211-27. Mehl, Roger. Catholic Ethics and Protestant Ethics, 19-31. Trans. from the French by James H. Farley. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1971. On Luther.

Mildenberger, Friedrich. Theology of the Lutheran Confessions, ed. Robert C. Schultz, 83-94, 121-31, 142-7, 162-73, 221-30. Trans. from the German by Erwin L. Lueker. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986.

Mitchell, Joshua. “The Equality of All under the One in Luther and Rousseau: Thoughts on Christianity and Political Theory.” Journal of Religion 72, 3 (July 1992): 351-65.

_______. “Luther and Hobbes on the Question: Who Was Moses, Who Was Christ?” Journal of Politics 53, 3 (August 1991): 676-700.

Mueller. Church and State in Luther and Calvin: A Comparative Study, 3- 69. Nashville: Broadman, 1954.

Mühlen, Karl-Heinz zur. “Law: Theological Understanding of Law.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, 2, ed. Hans J. Hillerbrand, 404-8. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Bibliography.

_______. “Two Kingdoms.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, 4, ed. Hans J. Hillerbrand, 184-8. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Nestingen, James Arne. “The Catechism’s Simul.” Word & World III, 4 (Fall 1983): 364-72.

_______. “Luther: The Death and Resurrection of Moses.” Dialog 22, 4 (Fall 1983): 275-9.

Niebuhr, H. Richard. Christ and Culture, 116-48. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1951. Views Luther in terms of “Christ and Culture in Paradox.”

Nygren, Anders. “Luther’s Doctrine of the Two Kingdoms.” Ecumenical Review I, 3 (Spring 1949): 301-10.

Oberman, Heiko A. Luther: Man Between God and the Devil. Trans. from the German by Eileen Walliser-Schwarzbart. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.

Olson, Jeannine E. One Ministry, Many Roles: Deacons and Deaconesses Through the Centuries. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1992.

Ozment, Steven. “Luther’s Political Legacy.” In Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution, 118-48. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

Pauck, Wilhelm. “Luther and Butzer.” In The Heritage of the Reformation, 73-84. New York: Oxford University Press, 1961.

_______. “Luther and Melanchthon.” In Luther and Melanchthon in the History and Theology of the Reformation, ed. Vilmos Vajta, 13-31. Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1961.

Persaud, Winston. “Globalization and Fragmentation: Las Casas and Luther in Context.” Dialog 36, 1 (Winter 1997): 25-31.

Pesch, Otto Hermann. “Free by Faith: Luther’s Contribution to a Theological Anthropology.” In Martin Luther and the Modern Mind: Freedom, Conscience, Toleration, Rights, ed. Manfred Hoffmann, 23-60. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen, 1985.

Pinomaa, Lennart. Faith Victorious: An Introduction to Luther’s Theology. Trans. from the Finnish by Walter J. Kukkonen. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1963. Includes chapters on justification and sanctification, the foundation of social ethics, and vocation.

Raines, John C. “Luther’s Two Kingdoms and the Desacralization of Ethics.” Encounter 31, 2 (Spring 1970): 121-48.

Reed, Stephen D. “The Decalogue in Luther’s Large Catechism.” Dialog 22, 4 (Fall 1983): 264-9.

Rupp, E. Gordon. Martin Luther: Hitler’s Cause or Cure?: In Reply to Peter F. Wiener. London: Lutterworth Press, 1945.

Sanders, Thomas G. Protestant Concepts of Church and State: Historical Backgrounds and Approaches for the Future, 23-74. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964. On Luther and Lutheranism.

Schlink, Edmund. Theology of the Lutheran Confessions, 67-140, 226-69. Trans. from the German by Paul F. Koehneke and Herbert J. A. Bouman. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1961. On “Law and Gospel” and “Civil and Ecclesiastical Government.”

Schwarz, Hans. Truth Faith in the True God: An Introduction to Luther’s Life and Thought. Trans. from the German by Mark William Worthing. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1996.

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Sockness, Brent W. “Luther’s Two Kingdoms Revisited: A Response to Reinhold Niebuhr’s Criticism of Luther.” Journal of Religious Ethics 20, 1 (Spring 1992): 93-110.

Stephenson, John R. “The Two Governments and the Two Kingdoms in Luther’s Thought.” Scottish Journal of Theology 34, 4 (1981): 321-37.

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Steinmetz, David. Luther in Context, 112-25. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986. On the two kingdoms.

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Ziemke, Donald C. Love for the Neighbor in Luther’s Theology: The Development of His Thought 1512-1529. Minneapolis: Augsburg Press, 1963.

On Later Persons and Developments

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Bakken, Peter W. “The Ecology of Grace: Ultimacy and Environmental Ethics in Aldo Leopold and Joseph Sittler.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss, University of Chicago, 1991.

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Burtness, James H. Shaping the Future: The Ethics of Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985. Bibliographical essay.

Childs, James M. “The Significance of Wolfhart Pannenberg for Contemporary Theology.” Trinity Seminary Review 13, 2 (Fall 1991):61-8.

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Ericksen, Robert P. Theologians Under Hitler: Gerhard Kittel, Paul Althaus and Emanuel Hirsch. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. A critical study of three Lutheran theologians.

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Forde, Gerhard O. The Law-Gospel Debate: An Interpretation of Its Historical Development. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1969. On nineteenth and twentieth century developments.

Forstman, Jack. Christian Faith in Dark Times: Theological Conflicts in the Shadow of Hitler. Louisville, Ky: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992. Studies controversies among six theologians (five Lutheran), three of whom opposed Hitler and three of whom welcomed him in 1933.

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Gluchman, Vasil. Slovak Lutheran Social Ethics. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen, 1997. Focuses on writings from the twentieth century, particularly since 1948.

Graebner, Alan. “Immigrant Acculturation in the Missouri Synod, 1917-1929.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1964. Bibliography.

Grenholm, Carl-Henric. Christian Social Ethics in a Revolutionary Age: An Analysis of the Social Ethics of John C. Bennett, Heinz-Dietrich Wendland and Richard Shaull. Uppsala: Verbum, 1973.

Hall, Thor. “Nygren’s Ethics.” In The Philosophy and Theology of Anders Nygren, ed. Charles W. Kegley, 263-81. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois University Press, 1970.

Heinecken, Martin J. “Pietism, Ethics of.” In The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Ethics, eds. James F. Childress and John Macquarrie, 475-6. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1986.

Hoehn, Richard A. “J. H. W. Stuckenberg: American Lutheranism’s First Social Ethicist.” Dialog 22, 1 (Winter 1983): 15-20.

Hoffman, Bengt R. Christian Social Thought in India, 1947-1962: An Evaluation. Bangalore: Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society, 1967.

Jackson, Gregory Lee. Prophetic Voice for the Kingdom: The Impact of Alvin Daniel Mattson upon the Social Consciousness of the Augustana Synod. Rock Island, Ill.: Augustana Historical Society, 1986.

Johnson, Jeff G. Black Christians: The Untold Lutheran Story. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1991.

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Lebacqz, Karen. “Alien Dignity: The Legacy of Helmut Thielicke.” In Religion and Medical Ethics: Looking Back, Looking Forward, ed. Allen Verhey, 44-60. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1996.

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Lotz, David W. Ritschl & Luther: A Fresh Perspective on Albrecht Ritschl’s Theology in the Light of His Luther Study, 127-38. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1974. The relation of faith to ethics in Ritschl and Luther.

Lovin, Robin W. Christian Faith and Public Choices: The Social Ethics of Barth, Brunner and Bonhoeffer. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984.

Macquarrie, John. “Ritschlian Ethics.” In The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Ethics, eds. James F. Childress and Macquarrie, 559-60. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1986.

Nielsen, Paul. “Vocation, Responsibility, and the Ethics of Dietrich Bonhoeffer.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1998.

Noll, Mark A. “The Lutheran Difference.” First Things 20 (February 1992): 31-40.

Outka, Gene. “Equality and Individuality: Thoughts on Two Themes in Kierkegaard.” Journal of Religious Ethics 10, 2 (Fall 1982): 171-203.

_______. “Kierkegaardian Ethics.” In The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Ethics, eds. James F. Childress and John Macquarrie, 337-9. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1986.

_______, “Religious and Moral Duty: Notes on Fear and Trembling.” In Religion and Morality: A Collection of Essays, 204-54, eds. Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, 1973.

Rasmussen, Larry L. Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Reality and Resistance. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1972.

Reimer, James A. The Emanuel Hirsch and Paul Tillich Debate: A Study in the Political Ramifications of Theology. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen, 1989.

Rohrbough, Faith E. “The Political Maturation of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg.” Lutheran Quarterly X, 4 (Winter 1996): 385-406.

Root, Michael John. “Creation and Redemption: A Study of Their Interrelation, with Special Reference to the Theology of Regin Prenter.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1979. Includes discussion of Luther.

Scholder, Klaus. The Churches and the Third Reich, One: 1918-1934; Two: 1934 Barmen and Rome. Trans. from the German by John Bowden. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1988.

Scott, David. A. “The Trinity and Ethics: The Thought of Helmut Thielicke.” Lutheran Quarterly XXIX, 1 (February 1977): 3-12.

Scott-Thomas, Elaine. “Lutherans and the Social Gospel in Canada in the First Quarter of the Twentieth Century.” Consensus 22, 1 (1995): 9-27.

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Siemon-Netto, Uwe. The Fabricated Luther: The Rise and Fall of the Shriver Myth. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1993.

_______. “Luther and Hitler: Friends or Foes?” Dialog 35, 3 (Summer 1996): 188-92.

_______. “Luther Vilified—Luther Vindicated, 1.” Lutheran Forum 27, 2 (Pentecost 1993): 33-9.

_______. “Luther Vilified—Luther Vindicated, 2.” Lutheran Forum 27, 3 (Reformation 1993): 42-9.

Simpson, Gary. “Reciprocity and Political Theology: Wolfhart Pannenberg and Three Americans—John B. Cobb, Jr., Carl E. Braaten, and Richard John Neuhaus.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Christ Seminary-Seminex, 1983.

Sittler, Joseph. “Social Gospel.” In The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, III, ed. Julius Bodensieck, 2197-8. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1965.

Sockness, Brent W. “Ethics as Fundamental Theology: The Function of Ethics in the Theology of Wilhelm Herrmann.” In Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics, 1992, ed. Harlan Beckley, 75-96. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University, 1992.

_______. “Troeltsch’s ‘Practical Christian Ethics’: the Heidelberg Lectures (1911/12).” In Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics, 1997, 17, eds. John Kelsay and Summer B. Twiss, 71-94. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1997.

Stange, Douglas C. Radicalism for Humanity: A Study of Lutheran Abolitionism. St. Louis: Oliver Slave, 1970.

Strieter, Thomas. “Contemporary Two-Kingdoms and Governances Thinking for Today's World: A Critical Assessment of Types of Interpretation of the Two-Kingdoms and Governances Model, Especially Within American Lutheranism.” Unpublished Th.D. diss., Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, 1986. Studies eight theologians. Bibliography.

Stumme, John R. Socialism in Theological Perspective: A Study of Paul Tillich 1918- 1933. Missoula, Montana: Scholars Press, 1978.

Watt, Alan. “Two Approaches to Social Action in 19th Century Lutheranism.” Trinity Seminary Review 4 (1982):32-43.

Weborg, John. “Pietism: ‘The Fire of God Which…Flames in the Heart of Germany’.” In Protestant Spiritual Traditions, ed. Frank Senn, 9-54. New York: Paulist Press, 1986.

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Date Added: 3/30/2003 Date Revised: 2/1/2004 2:22:07 PM

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